Okayama University Medical Research Updates (OU-MRU) Vol.30

October 27, 2016

Source: Okayama University (JAPAN), Public Relations and Information Strategy
For immediate release: 27 October 2016
Okayama University research: Cancer stem cells’ role in tumor growth revealed

(Okayama, 27 October) Researchers at Okayama University have successfully created a mouse model suitable for studying the behaviour of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in tumors. Their initial insights clarify the role taken by CSCs in promoting tumor vasculature in the early stages of tumor growth.


In order to grow beyond a certain size, tumor cells trigger angiogenesis – a process by which new blood vessels form existing vessel structures. The tumor cells activate multiple mechanisms to develop blood vasculature, which then provides the tumor with the oxygen and nutrients it needs to grow.

While the basic processes surrounding tumor growth is reasonably well-understood, there is growing evidence to suggest that the formation of the vascular network is not restricted to angiogenesis. In fact, cancer stem cells (or CSCs) - cells within the tumor that can self-renew and differentiate into different cell types - appear to contribute to a phenomenon called ‘vasculogenic mimicry’; the formation of vascular-like channels without usual input from endothelial cells (common tissue cells) and growth factors.

Now, Professor Masaharu Seno and co-workers at Okayama University, together with scientists across Japan, China and the US, have generated a mouse model for assessing the role of CSCs in cancerous tumor development. Their results give considerable insights into the process of vasculogenic mimicry and may inform future therapeutic strategies.

The team had previously established their mouse model, miPSC-LLCcm, using mouse-induced pluripotent stem cells. They introduced the DsRed gene into the model which emits red-colored fluorescence and allowed the team to track CSCs during tumor growth. They found that angiogenic growth factors were predominantly expressed in one population of CSCs. This CSC group also worked to recruit endothelial cells from the host and promote the maturation of endothelial cells differentiated from the CSCs themselves.

Seno’s team then discovered that the remaining undifferentiated miPSC-LLCcm cells were directly involved in the formation of vasculogenic mimicry. These results indicate that tumor vasculature is a vital part of tumor growth, and highlights why therapies that solely target angiogenesis are not working as well as expected. As Seno states in their paper published in The American Journal of Cancer Research, “miPSC-LLCcm could be an appropriate model to understand entire tumor vascularization and to develop novel drugs and therapeutic strategies.”


Background Tumor growth
Tumors cannot grow very large without help from their host body. To survive and grow, tumor cells initiate the process of angiogenesis – creating new blood vessels from the existing tumor vessel structures. Inflammatory proteins and angiogenic factors are released by the tumor cells, which activates endothelial cells (common tissue cells found all over the body) and triggers degradation at the base of the tumor. This allows the endothelial cells to invade the surrounding membrane, multiply and migrate to form new blood vessels.

Despite this knowledge of growth influenced by angiogenesis, cancer therapies targeting angiogenesis alone have not been particularly successful. Seno and his team at Okayama University sought to clarify the role of other cancerous cells within the tumor – self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSCs) – to see if they also contribute to tumor vascularization.

The team’s results suggest CSCs are heavily involved in vascularization, both through recruiting endothelial cells from outside the tumor and differentiating into endothelial cells themselves. Further, the undifferentiated CSCs go on to mimic the formation of blood vessels, creating new vessel-like structures without the aid of other proteins and growth factors.

Implications of the current study
Seno’s team believe their results suggest further investigations are needed into CSC behaviour in tumor cells, and that their mouse model (miPSC-LLCcm) will provide scientists with the means to conduct these studies. They hope that their model will inform future targeted therapies for cancer.

Reference
Marta Prieto-Vila, Ting Yan, Anna Sanchez Calle, Neha Nair, Laura Hurley, Tomonari Kasai, Hiroki Kakuta, Junko Masuda, Hiroshi Murakami, Akifumi Mizutani, Masaharu Seno. iPSC-derived Cancer Stem Cells Provide a Model of Tumor Vasculature. Am J Cancer Res, 2016;6(9):1906-1921.
ISSN: 2156-6976
http://www.ajcr.us/files/ajcr0035784.pdf


Reference (Okayama Univ. e-Bulletin): Professor Seno’s team
Innovative methods for cancer treatment: World’s first cancer stem cell model from iPS cells. (2015)
Cancer stem cell niche: progenies of CSCs maintain properties of CSCs. (2014)
Stemming the spread of cancer. (2012)

Correspondence to
Professor Masaharu Seno, Ph.D.
Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of
Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University,
3-1-1 Tsushimanaka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530, Japan
e-mail : mseno(a) okayama-u.ac.jp
For inquiries, please contact us by replacing (a) with the @ mark.
http://www.cyber.biotech.okayama-u.ac.jp/senolab/e_kenkyuu.html

Further information
Okayama University
1-1-1 Tsushima-naka , Kita-ku , Okayama 700-8530, Japan
Public Relations and Information Strategy
E-mail: www-adm (a) adm.okayama-u.ac.jp
For inquiries, please contact us by replacing (a) with the @ mark.

Website: //www.okayama-u.ac.jp/index_e.html
Okayama Univ. e-Bulletin: //www.okayama-u.ac.jp/user/kouhou/ebulletin/
Okayama Univ. e-Bulletin (PDF Issues): //www.okayama-u.ac.jp/user/kouhou/ebulletin/
About Okayama University (You Tube): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iDL1coqPRYI
Okayama University Image Movie (You Tube): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_WnbJVk2elA
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KU3hOIXS5kk


Okayama University Medical Research Updates (OU-MRU)
Vol.1:Innovative non-invasive ‘liquid biopsy’ method to capture circulating tumor cells from blood samples for genetic testingVol.2:Ensuring a cool recovery from cardiac arrestVol.3:Organ regeneration research leaps forwardVol.4:Cardiac mechanosensitive integratorVol.5:Cell injections get to the heart of congenital defectsVol.6:Fourth key molecule identified in bone developmentVol.7:Anticancer virus solution provides an alternative to surgeryVol.8:Light-responsive dye stimulates sight in genetically blind patientsVol.9:Diabetes drug helps towards immunity against cancerVol.10:Enzyme-inhibitors treat drug-resistant epilepsyVol.11:Compound-protein combination shows promise for arthritis treatmentVol.12:Molecular features of the circadian clock system in fruit fliesVol.13:Peptide directs artificial tissue growthVol.14:Simplified boron compound may treat brain tumoursVol.15:Metamaterial absorbers for infrared inspection technologiesVol.16:Epigenetics research traces how crickets restore lost limbsVol.17:Cell research shows pathway for suppressing hepatitis B virusVol.18:Therapeutic protein targets liver diseaseVol.19:Study links signalling protein to osteoarthritisVol.20:Lack of enzyme promotes fatty liver disease in thin patientsVol.21:Combined gene transduction and light therapy targets gastric cancerVol.22:Medical supportive device for hemodialysis catheter punctureVol.23:Development of low cost oral inactivated vaccines for dysenteryVol.24:Sticky molecules to tackle obesity and diabetesVol.25:Self-administered aroma foot massage may reduce symptoms of anxietyVol.26:Protein for preventing heart failureVol.27:Keeping cells in shape to fight sepsisVol.28:Viral-based therapy for bone cancerVol.29:Photoreactive compound allows protein synthesis control with light

ACADEMIC YEAR